Traditionally, the identity of a "warrior" constituted the dominant pattern determining the behaviour and attitudes of soldiers. It is based on a specific ethos and centred around fighting the enemy. The resulting attitudes, behaviours, norms, and values revolve around elements such as courage and bravery, camaraderie and self-sacrifice, as well as discipline and obedience. From this perspective, the Australian Defence Force is an interesting case, as its identity comprises many elements typical of the traditional identity of a "warrior". At the same time, in several key aspects, the identity of Australian soldiers is clearly diverging from it. The purpose of this analysis is therefore to identify the elements of the Australian Army's military identity and relate them to that of the "warrior".Read More o A. Mazurkiewicz - Military identity: Australian warriors
W. Kowalski - Election influence of the Iranian intelligence services on the 2020 US federal elections
The analysis is devoted to the activities of the Iranian intelligence services during the US presidential election in 2020 in light of a US National Intelligence Council report. It mainly focuses on activities in cyberspace, which was the main field of Iranian activity. The analysis presents the history of the use of cyberspace by the authorities in Tehran, the institutions responsible for its use and examples of its use. The activities of the Iranian services have been placed in the broader context of bilateral political relations between Tehran and Washington.Read More o W. Kowalski - Election influence of the Iranian intelligence services on the 2020 US federal elections
The number of states capable of building, launching, and operating satellites has grown significantly over the past years. When well-established space-faring powers have secured their stance in space services and technologies, newcomers from the Persian Gulf appeared in the recent decade with vast financial resources as well as ambitions to challenge traditional players. This short analysis discusses how Saudi Arabia and UAE are conquering space in an egalitarian fashion, and what kind of potential changes in the relationship between old and new spacefarers may result in an entire shift in the space industry sector.Read More o P. Frankowski - Cooperation and rivalry of the Arab states in outer space
D. Kozerawski - The Polish Military Contingent in the international peace operation of the European Union EUFOR Tchad/RCA – tasks and results
This analysis contains selected problems concerning the engagement of the Polish Military Contingent in the international peace operation of the European Union EUFOR Tchad/RCA with regard to its scale, tasks’s assignments. The author focuses on the national limitations which had an essential impact on fulfillment of tasks’ in the Polish Military Contingent’s area of responsibility. Moreover, the effects of the Polish contingent’s participation in that operation are presented, including civil-military cooperation.Read More o D. Kozerawski - The Polish Military Contingent in the international peace operation of the European Union EUFOR Tchad/RCA – tasks and results
The war crimes that were committed in the 1990s in the territory of the former Yugoslavia constitute one of the major challenges for regional security and for the bilateral policy of the current Balkan states. In this respect, despite the passing of more than two decades, it is still an open question to judge the crimes committed by the Kosovo Liberation Army (Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës, UÇK) in the late 1990s and to define the role of Kosovo's leading politician - Hashim Thaçi in these events. In June 2020, the Prosecutor's Office of the Special Judicial Chamber of Kosovo in The Hague brought charges against the then President of Kosovo for crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Kosovo in 1998-1999. Following serious accusations, Thaçi stepped down as a leader of Kosovo and is now awaiting further proceedings in the Hague custody.Read More o W. Hebda - Hashim Thaçi: a war criminal or a national hero of the Kosovar Albanians?