The number of states capable of building, launching, and operating satellites has grown significantly over the past years. When well-established space-faring powers have secured their stance in space services and technologies, newcomers from the Persian Gulf appeared in the recent decade with vast financial resources as well as ambitions to challenge traditional players. This short analysis discusses how Saudi Arabia and UAE are conquering space in an egalitarian fashion, and what kind of potential changes in the relationship between old and new spacefarers may result in an entire shift in the space industry sector.Read More o P. Frankowski - Cooperation and rivalry of the Arab states in outer space
D. Kozerawski - The Polish Military Contingent in the international peace operation of the European Union EUFOR Tchad/RCA – tasks and results
This analysis contains selected problems concerning the engagement of the Polish Military Contingent in the international peace operation of the European Union EUFOR Tchad/RCA with regard to its scale, tasks’s assignments. The author focuses on the national limitations which had an essential impact on fulfillment of tasks’ in the Polish Military Contingent’s area of responsibility. Moreover, the effects of the Polish contingent’s participation in that operation are presented, including civil-military cooperation.Read More o D. Kozerawski - The Polish Military Contingent in the international peace operation of the European Union EUFOR Tchad/RCA – tasks and results
The war crimes that were committed in the 1990s in the territory of the former Yugoslavia constitute one of the major challenges for regional security and for the bilateral policy of the current Balkan states. In this respect, despite the passing of more than two decades, it is still an open question to judge the crimes committed by the Kosovo Liberation Army (Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës, UÇK) in the late 1990s and to define the role of Kosovo's leading politician - Hashim Thaçi in these events. In June 2020, the Prosecutor's Office of the Special Judicial Chamber of Kosovo in The Hague brought charges against the then President of Kosovo for crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Kosovo in 1998-1999. Following serious accusations, Thaçi stepped down as a leader of Kosovo and is now awaiting further proceedings in the Hague custody.Read More o W. Hebda - Hashim Thaçi: a war criminal or a national hero of the Kosovar Albanians?
Can democracy afford effective intelligence services without violating the norms, procedures, and institutions of democracy itself? The answer to this question is not evident at all. The principles of liberal democracy often stand in opposition to the modi operandi of intelligence services. There are so many examples of that rule, and many of them can be found in consolidated and unconsolidated democracies. On the one hand, intelligence agencies (special or security services) have destructive potential for the political system. On the other hand, they are necessary to cope with threats to national security that affect democratic states.Read More o M. Kolaszyński - Two worlds? Democratic principles and the reality of intelligence activities
P. Orłowski - NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE DEVELOPMENT GROUP (DEVGRU) – the hostage rescue operation of Philip Walton
On October 30, 2020, US Special Forces effectuated a hostage rescue operation to free a US citizen Philip Walton. Kidnapped in Niger, he was held hostage in Nigeria by a group of hijackers who threatened to hand him over to an extremist terrorist organisation Boko Haram. The operation was planned and carried out four days after the abduction. The present analysis intends to reconstruct a probable course of the operation, based on the available open-source information. It also contains a set of conclusions on the basis of the planning and implementation of the rescue operation.Read More o P. Orłowski - NAVAL SPECIAL WARFARE DEVELOPMENT GROUP (DEVGRU) – the hostage rescue operation of Philip Walton